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Education is the practical and methodological training that is given to a person developing and growing. It is a process by which the individual is provided with essential tools and knowledge to put them into practice in everyday life. The learning of a person begins from his childhood when entering institutes called schools or colleges where a previously studied and educated person will implant in the small identities, ethical and cultural values to make a person of good in the future.
What is education
The concept of education is defined as a process through which individuals acquire knowledge, be it skills, beliefs, values , or habits, from others who are responsible for transmitting them, using different methods, such as, for example, through discussion, storytelling, the example itself, research, and training.
Latest definitions of Education
Taking into account the definition of education, it is important to note that it is not only given through words, since there may be some of it in the actions of each individual, as well as in attitudes and feelings. In general, the educational process is directed by a figure of great authority, such as teachers, parents, principals, etc.
This does not mean that a person cannot educate himself, through a process known as self-taught learning. Therefore and taking into account all the above, it can be understood that any process that results in a formative effect, in the way in which the individual feels, thinks, and acts, can be said to be an educational process.
During the process that this entails, a set of values and skills are present that generate changes in the social, emotional, and intellectual, within each individual.
Depending on the level of consciousness that has been acquired, the values can remain for a lifetime or, failing that, for a specified period.
When it comes to children, learning is intended to promote the structural process of thinking and how the child expresses himself. It contributes greatly to the maturation process of the sensorimotor apparatus, at the same time that it stimulates group coexistence and integration.
From a technical point of view, the concept of education describes a continuous process, in which the intellectual, moral, and physical faculties of man are developed, to efficiently incorporate him into society or in the group where it unfolds, therefore, it can be said that it is a learning for life.
On the other hand, when the formal study is concerned, it should be noted that it is the educational process of each individual, and therefore it is considered a fundamental and obligatory right of human beings, so it must be guaranteed by the governments of each country.
Likewise, formal education itself is segmented into 4 types: infant, primary, secondary, and higher or tertiary.
This process within educational centers, such as institutes, schools, modules, universities, and others, skills and knowledge are transferred to children, youth, and adults, to develop their thinking, that is, to develop the ability to think about different problems, promote creativity, develop the growth of the intellect and train people with the ability to cause favorable changes for society.
Types of education
Education is divided into 3 types: formal, non-formal, and informal, where each of them differs from the other by a group of characteristics.
Formal education is characterized by being taught in specialized centers, such as schools, training institutes, colleges, and universities.
For its part, non-formal education is generated by organizations or community groups.
Finally, informal education encompasses everything else, this means that they are all those interactions of people with the environment in which they develop, be it family, friends, work, etc. In general, the people who act as educators are not professionals, therefore it is rare that pedagogical methods are used, in general, they usually make use of stimulus, dissemination, animation, promotion, among others.
As for the content that is taught, it is generally related to social needs, which also depends on other factors. In it are grouped, the learning that is obtained through TV, radio, internet.
The definition indicates that it is one that is generally offered in specialized training centers, in a structured way, according to a series of didactic goals, which have an estimated time, which has a support, and which ends with obtaining a certificate.
Generally, this type occurs within an institutional system, graduated chronologically and structured hierarchically. In each region of the world, there are educational systems that are generally made up of both public and private institutions. It should be noted that the formal education system has establishments that are regulated by government entities.
Within formal education there are different subtypes, which are described below:
Early childhood education, also known as initial or preschool, encompasses the entire educational process from the birth of a child, up to the age of six, however, this may vary depending on the region, once the children already enter what is known as primary. The institutions designated by the state are defined as kindergarten. During early childhood education, the first objective is to develop in children their intellectual, physical, and moral nature, with special emphasis on the speed with which it is carried out.
It is the stage whose duration ranges between 6 or 8 years of school, and that usually begins when the child reaches 5 or 6 years of age, depending on the country in which they are.
Around the world, almost 90% of children between 6 and 12 years old are enrolled in primary education, however, it is believed that this figure will increase in the coming years. Within the framework of the program created by UNESCO “Education for all”, most of the countries have committed themselves to be able to cover a universal enrollment in primary education. On the other hand, the transition from primary education to secondary education occurs between 11 and 12 years of age, this change is contemplated by some education systems in different educational centers.
Most of the modern educational systems around the world, comprise secondary education in parallel with the stage of adolescence. This stage has as its first characteristic, the passage of children from general primary education and compulsory for minors, towards tertiary and elective education. It can be said that secondary education aims to give the student common knowledge while preparing him for the tertiary level, it can also train the student for a specific profession.
Depending on the educational system, the institution where secondary education is put into practice is known as the institute, lyceum, middle school, gymnasium, etc. It should be noted that the exact limit between primary and secondary education may have certain variations between one country and another, and even within the same territories, however, it is common for it to be between the seventh to the tenth year of school.
Upper secondary education
It is a type that focuses on the practical and direct training of an individual for a certain profession. Vocational training can include theory, practice, or both, as well as courses from educational institutions, such as agriculture or carpentry.
It is the final stage of the educational process, that is, it refers to all those training phases that are found after high school and that each country and educational system contemplates. Usually, this type is taught in universities, vocational schools, or also in higher institutes, among others.
Even though this form is currently known as an alternative, it should be mentioned that alternative systems have been around for many years. When the public school system developed extensively in the 19th century, there was discontent in certain countries for the creation of this new system, giving way to the emergence of so-called higher education, that is, this was a reaction to the dissatisfaction with parents due to the various flaws found in traditional education. As a result, a large number of different approaches to education originated, encompassing alternative schools, homeschooling, self-study, and unschooling.