The computers, computers or computers are one of the most powerful technological tools ever invented by humanity, whose place in our lives has become increasingly essential with the passing of the time. Work, meet people, play, research… everything is done through one of these machines. Here we will talk about its internal components, that is, about the hardware that operates without user interference.
The internal parts of a computer are those that are not commonly exposed to the eye, but rather form the “guts” of the device hidden within the CPU ( Central Processing Unit ). Its operation is essential for the correct behavior of the computer system.
Next, we will detail the main components of a computer :
The processor is an electronic circuit that acts as the logical and arithmetic brain of the computer. It is there that the billions of calculations per second that support the entire software are carried out.
It is easily recognizable on the Motherboard since it is a black square with a small fan on top since they usually need constant cooling to avoid an overload.
Today’s processors ( microprocessors) can be of different brands and operate at high speeds, generally measurable in gigahertz (GHz).
Also known as the Motherboard, it is the main CPU card, where the processor is located, the slots for RAM, ROM modules, and where the other cards in the system are inserted directly.
It is a series of circuits on the same platform that acts as the core of the system, integrating its different internal components. This is where the Firmware is located, that is, the pre-programmed software in the system.
The heart of the system supplies electric power to the Motherboard and all other CPU components so that they can operate when needed and keep certain basic and indispensable systems running when the computer is turned off.
Its name comes from the initials of Random Access Memory or Random Access Memory. They are a series of modules connected to the Motherboard, where the programs to be run go, both those activated by the system and those activated by the user. However, everything in RAM will be erased when the system is shut down or restarted.
It should not be confused with the ROM ( Read-Only Memory, that is, Read-Only Memory ) contained in the Motherboard, and only data can be extracted. Nor with disk storage space.
Also known as a “hard disk” (by Hard disk translation ), it is the place where the permanent information of the computer system is stored, that is, all the software contained in it, from the Operating System itself, to the programs or applications that we install your users.
Being a literacy unit, it is possible to enter and extract data from it or what is the same, record, read, and delete information.
In the past, the Hard Drive was accompanied by disk drives, floppy disks, or various types of portable secondary storage. All this has disappeared today after the invention of USB ports and portable ( flash ) memory. There are even some computer models that lack a hard drive.
Data cables serve to transmit information between CPU components, just as our veins and arteries do. There are different types of cables, such as the data bus (16, 32 and 64 bit), the IDE cable that connects the disks to the Motherboard, or the SATA data cable. They are usually of specific colors and have specific terminals.
The video card or video card is secondary, connected to the Motherboard, which specializes in the processing of information regarding the video, that is, the emission of images and movement on monitors, projectors, etc.
Therefore, depending on its capabilities, we can have higher image quality and faster animations, or even three-dimensional effects or HD resolutions.
Similar to the Video Board, the Sound Board is integrated into the Motherboard, but its work is specialized in the processing of audio signals, that is, in the quality, speed and clarity of the sound and musical emissions that the system is capable of broadcasting, which is key when watching movies, playing games, etc.
The third type of card that is usually embedded in the Motherboard is the Network Board, a manager of the computer connections that the system can establish with networks or directly with other computers.
These cards usually incorporate connection ports for telephone or fiber optic cables and WiFi adapters or wireless networks, which can be managed by the user using the appropriate software.
Due to the high current and information traffic within the system, the CPU is a very hot place, so a heat sink is always necessary for the form of a fan.
This appliance extracts hot air and allows internal temperatures to drop, as overheating would stop the system and permanently damage some of its delicate components.